Energy conversion, the transformation of energy from forms provided by nature to forms that can be used by humans.40-4 Over the centuries, a wide range of devices and systems have been developed for this purpose. Some of these power converters are quite simple. For example, it transformed the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy to pump water and grind grains. Other energy conversion systems are decidedly more complex, particularly those that take raw energy from fossil fuels and nuclear fuels to generate electrical power. They require multiple steps or processes in which energy undergoes a complete series of transformations through various intermediate forms.
Many of the energy converters widely used today involve the transformation of thermal energy into electrical energy. However, the efficiency of such systems is subject to fundamental factors. limitations, as dictated by the laws of thermodynamics and other scientific principles. Considerable attention has been paid to certain direct energy conversion devices, particularly solar cells, and fuel cells, which bypass the intermediate step of conversion to thermal energy in the generation of electrical energy.
This article describes the development of energy conversion technology, highlighting not only conventional ones. systems but also alternative and experimental converters with considerable potential. It describes their specifics, basic principles of operation, main types, and key applications. For a discussion of the laws of thermodynamics and their effects on system design and performance, see Thermodynamics.
Energy Transformation, also known as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one form to another. In physics, energy is a quantity that provides the ability to do work (to lift an object) or to provide heat. In addition to being convertible under the Law of Conservation of Energy, energy is transferable to another place or object, but cannot be generated or destroyed.
Energy in many of its forms can be used in natural processes or for the provision of services to society such as Heating, cooling, lighting, or performing mechanical work are used to operate machines. For example, to heat a house, the stove burns fuel, the chemical potential energy of which is converted into thermal energy, which is then transferred. Defects in the air of the house to raise the temperature of 100% efficiently occur. Conversion between forms of non-thermal energy can occur with quite a high efficiency, although there is always some energy dissipated thermally due to friction and similar processes. Sometimes the efficiency is close to 100%, for example when potential energy is converted into kinetic energy when an object falls into a vacuum. This also applies to the opposite case; For example, an object in an elliptical orbit around another body converts its kinetic energy (speed) into potential gravitational energy (distance from the other object) as it moves away from its mother body. When it reaches the farthest point, it reverses that. Since the room is a vacuum, this process is close to 100 efficiency.
Thermal energy is unique in that it cannot be converted into other forms of energy. Only a difference in the density of heat / thermal energy (temperature) can be used to carry out work, and the efficiency of this conversion will be (much) less than 100%. This is because thermal energy is a particularly disordered form of energy; it is randomly distributed to many available states of a collection of microscopic particles that make up the system (these combinations of position and momentum for each of the particles are supposed to form a phase space). The measure of this perturbation or randomness is entropy, and its characteristic feature is that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases. One cannot take a system with high entropy (like a hot substance with a certain amount of heat energy) and transform it into a state with low entropy (like a low-temperature substance with correspondingly lower energy) without this entropy going elsewhere (as in the ambient air). In other words, there is no way to concentrate energy without spreading energy elsewhere.
For the energy transformation to be more efficient, it is desirable to avoid thermal conversion, for example, the efficiency of nuclear reactors, where the kinetic energy of the nuclei is first converted into thermal energy and then into electrical energy, is situated about 35%. By direct conversion of kinetic energy into electrical energy, which is affected by eliminating intermediate thermal energy transformation, the efficiency of the energy transformation process can be dramatically improved.laws of thermodynamics